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Neuroscience is a modern computer-based therapeutic technology based on the principles of adaptive feedback. The basic concept of biofeedback boils down to the fact that information about one’s own functional state, obtained through sensors in real time, allows the operator (subject, patient) to easily learn how to improve normal and correct impaired physiological function with the participation of voluntary and involuntary self-regulation mechanisms.

1. Bio-management

Biofeedback is a unique psychophysiological technology that can be considered as an effective way to solve complex problems such as the formation of the optimal functioning state.

  1. Computer bio-control systems allow you to determine the physiological markers of emotional stress, assess the current psychophysiological state by a number of physiological parameters: EEG rhythms, electromyogram (muscle tension), skin temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, skin-galvanic reaction.

  2. with the help of biofeedback, you can learn to manage various physiological functions: optimize the respiratory rate based on the ratio of the duration of inhalation/exhalation; reduce muscle tension; normalize heart rate, peripheral temperature, skin-galvanic response; and also develop skills for rapid recovery after emotional and physical exertion.

  3. optimal functioning Training, which combines the use of basic biofeedback and neurofeedback technologies, teaches activation methods (readiness for action), maintaining a high level of performance over a long period of time, and skills for achieving calmness and concentration. To do this, a computer simulation of the game plot is used, which is controlled by the physiological functions of the trainee. To win in such a game is possible only by applying effective strategies of behavior, control and self-regulation of the psycho-vegetative status.

It is known that a large number of psychophysiological tests are used to assess the degree of readiness for optimal functioning in a difficult situation, among which procedures that simulate professionally significant situations have recently begun to play an important role. These include psychophysiological models of competition and behavior in situations of uncertainty, as well as performing complex motor and cognitive tasks under limited time conditions. The result of such tests is information recorded by the computer system about the body’s physiological responses to stress and the quality of subsequent recovery according to indicators of the cardiovascular, muscular and respiratory systems, and brain biorhythms.

This data together with the results of psychological testing are used to form an individual training protocol for optimal functioning.

2. Areas of application of biofeedback

2.1. Clinical practice of biofeedback

The most widespread use of biofeedback is found in the clinic of borderline, psychosomatic disorders and a large group of organic diseases of the nervous system. BOS-training is a unique method that promotes the development of visceral perception processes, fine differentiation of internal sensations and emotions. Awareness of body signals is an important predictor of success in mastering the biofeedback method. The method of bio-management can be both an independent psychotherapeutic technique and an effective tool that helps the doctor to achieve a more pronounced and lasting therapeutic effect in the psychotherapeutic context.

2.2. Neuromyopathies in sports 

Leading position in sports practice among methods based on biofeedback, neurobioadministration took over. A significant number of papers have been devoted to the study of the possibility of using neurobioadministration in the training of athletes [1-8]. However, the aftereffect of the neurobioadministration course is currently insufficiently studied, which causes some coaches to doubt its safety and effectiveness, and leads to limited use of this technology in sports. In connection with this, the aim of the work was to study the dynamics of the psychophysiological state in athletes aged 18-23 years who completed a course of neurobiological management aimed at increasing the power of the alpha rhythm of the brain during the year.

The study made it possible to draw the following conclusions: the dynamic rearrangements of the bioelectric activity of the brain in athletes who have completed the course of neurobioadministration depend on the initial power of the alpha rhythm of the brain.

alpha-stimulating training has a positive effect on the psychofunctional state of athletes. Depending on the initial power of the alpha rhythm of the brain and the success of the course of neurofeedback, athletes experience urgent and delayed effects of training. The extinction of the achieved effects of the training is gradual and heterochronic. No negative effects of the course of neurobiological management were revealed.

2.3. Bio-management in musical activity optimization 

Arbitrary control of reducing the integral power of the EMG and, conversely, increasing the power of the alpha and SMR ranges of the EEG. Was able to determine the optimality of a musician contractor: to improve intonationally musical perception, the ability of self-control logomasini coordination, rational organization of traffic, which was also reflected in the predominance of alpha rhythm and SMR EEG rhythms, decrease the integral power of the muscles not directly involved in game movement.

Psychomotor dysfunction of performing activities associated with a violation of optimal functioning can be corrected with the help of biofeedback technology.

2.4. Stress correction adaptation for medical students

Course training with biofeedback increases the integral health index, reduces personal anxiety and reactive anxiety, and improves academic performance. The effectiveness of BOS training was highest in the group of students with a low value of the integral health index.

After the BOS-training procedure, students noted feelings in the form of pleasant fatigue, drowsiness, and a decrease in the state of anxiety. A negative point in the BOS training is a certain monotony, which is noted by students who have completed a full course of correction.

2.5. Game bio-management — help in adaptation to school stress

The plot of the games is controlled by the heart rate using a special heart rate sensor that registers the signal and transmits it to the computer. Virtual competition, in which the player’s speed is inversely proportional to the heart rate, is a psychophysiological model of a stressful situation, performed in the form of a game.

All students who completed the course of game computer bio-management demonstrated the ability to effectively master the methods of self-regulation and control their emotional state in a situation that simulates stress.

3. Conclusion

Psychophysiological and General therapeutic direction, such as bio-management, is on the rise. Prospects for its development are provided by the features of multiparametric monitoring, which is the basis of bio-management, the availability of flexible mathematical models and developing algorithms for data evaluation. In recent years, the technology has become extremely diverse, and new "growth points" are being outlined; (BOS in hyperventilation syndrome by the concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaled air, game versions of BOS training).

Long-forgotten modifications of biofeedback (EEG biofeedback training in combination with multi-channel mapping) are getting an unexpected development. There are good reasons to believe that practical health care and medical science have acquired a new effective non-drug method of treatment and prevention. As a result of this approach, the possibility of developing a person’s potential increases due to the study and correction of stressful States and activation of his resource state in conditions of high information density.

4. Links

  1. ЭЭГ биоуправление улучшает сфокусированное внимание при синдроме дефицита внимания и гиперреактивности
    Sokhadze E.M., Hillard B., Eng M., El-Baz A.S., Tasman A., Sears L.

  2. Идентичность при наркотической зависимости и ее динамика в курсе альфа-стимулирующего биоуправления
    Шубина О.С., Мельников М.Е., Загоруйко Е.Н., Скок А.Б.

  3. Электроэнцефалографическое нейробиоуправление (альфа-тренинг) в учебном процессе у студентов
    Таламова И.Г., Черапкина Л.П., Степочкина С.П.

  4. Нейробиоуправление в коррекции синдрома дефицита внимания и гиперактивности школьников
    Джафарова О.А., Даниленко Е.Н.

  5. Нейродинамика и прогнозируемость курса альфастимулируещего биоуправления у спортсменов и лиц, занимающихся физической культурой
    Черапкина Л.П., Тристан В.Г., Стёпочкина С.П.

  6. Оценка эффективности методики коррекции психоэмоционального состояния студентов медицинского института
    Горелик С.Г., Ковалева О.Л., Гаврилова А.А., Милютина Е.В., Филиниченко Т.С.

  7. Биоуправление в музыкальном творчестве
    Базанова О.М., Штарк М.Б.

  8. Альфа-активность ЭЭГ при нейротерапии синдрома дефицита внимания средствами игрового нейроуправления
    Столлер И.А., Сухоленцева М.В., Ткаченко Н.Н., Верёвкин Е., Штарк М.Б, Ярош С.В.