Neuroscience is a modern computer-based therapeutic technology based on the principles of adaptive feedback. The basic concept of biofeedback boils down to the fact that information about one’s own functional state, obtained through sensors in real time, allows the operator (subject, patient) to easily learn how to improve normal and correct impaired physiological function with the participation of voluntary and involuntary self-regulation mechanisms.
Biofeedback is a unique psychophysiological technology that can be considered as an effective way to solve complex problems such as the formation of the optimal functioning state.
It is known that a large number of psychophysiological tests are used to assess the degree of readiness for optimal functioning in a difficult situation, among which procedures that simulate professionally significant situations have recently begun to play an important role. These include psychophysiological models of competition and behavior in situations of uncertainty, as well as performing complex motor and cognitive tasks under limited time conditions. The result of such tests is information recorded by the computer system about the body’s physiological responses to stress and the quality of subsequent recovery according to indicators of the cardiovascular, muscular and respiratory systems, and brain biorhythms.
This data together with the results of psychological testing are used to form an individual training protocol for optimal functioning.
The most widespread use of biofeedback is found in the clinic of borderline, psychosomatic disorders and a large group of organic diseases of the nervous system. BOS-training is a unique method that promotes the development of visceral perception processes, fine differentiation of internal sensations and emotions. Awareness of body signals is an important predictor of success in mastering the biofeedback method. The method of bio-management can be both an independent psychotherapeutic technique and an effective tool that helps the doctor to achieve a more pronounced and lasting therapeutic effect in the psychotherapeutic context.
In the clinic of nervous diseases, bio-management methods in the electromyogram have demonstrated high effectiveness in the treatment of post-stroke hemiparesis, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, spastic torticollis, and facial nerve neuropathy. EEG-BOS training is not used without success in the treatment of epilepsy. However, many authors consider the use of biofeedback training in the treatment of headaches, especially migraine headaches, to be the cornerstone of clinical biofeedback.
One of the most common symptoms in neurotic, neurosis-like, and affective disorders. In the treatment of migraines, it is believed that temperature BOS training is more effective. It is known that the stress response is accompanied by the centralization of blood circulation, "pumping"; blood flow to vital organs, increased blood PRESSURE, accelerated blood flow, decreased blood flow to the extremities, and peripheral vascular spasm.
Treatment of patients with motor disorders after spinal injury
Traditionally, spinal cord injuries are considered as disorders with a pessimistic prognosis, which becomes more and more disappointing as time passes. The first data on the successful application of biofeedback methods in spinal injury date back to the 70s, when 6 cases of achieving a good clinical effect in patients with damage to the cervical spine and spinal cord were described.
Biofeedback training for patients with stroke
One of the most promising areas is the use of the BOS training method in the rehabilitation program for people who have suffered a stroke. An important role in the clinical picture of post-stroke motor disorders belongs to disorders of psychophysiological mechanisms of movement control.
Biofeedback therapy in psychiatric and psychotherapy practice
The possibilities of bio-management in the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy are much less studied than in other areas of medicine (therapy, neurology, psychosomatic medicine). There are few publications on this topic, although the number has increased somewhat in recent years. In psychotherapeutic practice, the method of bio-management has become widespread in the treatment of neurotic (phobic disorders, obsessions), anxiety, and additive disorders. In child psychiatric practice, the effectiveness of BOS training is noted in the treatment of disorders associated with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (EEG-BOS). The effectiveness of the biofeedback method in psychotherapy depends on many non-specific factors.; factors such as personal characteristics and competence of the psychotherapist, the presence of a psychotherapeutic doctor-patient Alliance, additional methods that combine BOS training.
Biofeedback via EEG
Of particular interest is the use of BOS for electroencephalogram. The discussion about the nature and effects of EEG-BOS has been going on for 30 years. The clinical application of EEG-BOS methods is developing in 4 directions:
Leading position in sports practice among methods based on biofeedback, neurobioadministration took over. A significant number of papers have been devoted to the study of the possibility of using neurobioadministration in the training of athletes [1-8]. However, the aftereffect of the neurobioadministration course is currently insufficiently studied, which causes some coaches to doubt its safety and effectiveness, and leads to limited use of this technology in sports. In connection with this, the aim of the work was to study the dynamics of the psychophysiological state in athletes aged 18-23 years who completed a course of neurobiological management aimed at increasing the power of the alpha rhythm of the brain during the year.
The study made it possible to draw the following conclusions: the dynamic rearrangements of the bioelectric activity of the brain in athletes who have completed the course of neurobioadministration depend on the initial power of the alpha rhythm of the brain.
alpha-stimulating training has a positive effect on the psychofunctional state of athletes. Depending on the initial power of the alpha rhythm of the brain and the success of the course of neurofeedback, athletes experience urgent and delayed effects of training. The extinction of the achieved effects of the training is gradual and heterochronic. No negative effects of the course of neurobiological management were revealed.
Arbitrary control of reducing the integral power of the EMG and, conversely, increasing the power of the alpha and SMR ranges of the EEG. Was able to determine the optimality of a musician contractor: to improve intonationally musical perception, the ability of self-control logomasini coordination, rational organization of traffic, which was also reflected in the predominance of alpha rhythm and SMR EEG rhythms, decrease the integral power of the muscles not directly involved in game movement.
Psychomotor dysfunction of performing activities associated with a violation of optimal functioning can be corrected with the help of biofeedback technology.
Course training with biofeedback increases the integral health index, reduces personal anxiety and reactive anxiety, and improves academic performance. The effectiveness of BOS training was highest in the group of students with a low value of the integral health index.
After the BOS-training procedure, students noted feelings in the form of pleasant fatigue, drowsiness, and a decrease in the state of anxiety. A negative point in the BOS training is a certain monotony, which is noted by students who have completed a full course of correction.
The plot of the games is controlled by the heart rate using a special heart rate sensor that registers the signal and transmits it to the computer. Virtual competition, in which the player’s speed is inversely proportional to the heart rate, is a psychophysiological model of a stressful situation, performed in the form of a game.
All students who completed the course of game computer bio-management demonstrated the ability to effectively master the methods of self-regulation and control their emotional state in a situation that simulates stress.
Psychophysiological and General therapeutic direction, such as bio-management, is on the rise. Prospects for its development are provided by the features of multiparametric monitoring, which is the basis of bio-management, the availability of flexible mathematical models and developing algorithms for data evaluation. In recent years, the technology has become extremely diverse, and new "growth points" are being outlined; (BOS in hyperventilation syndrome by the concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaled air, game versions of BOS training).
Long-forgotten modifications of biofeedback (EEG biofeedback training in combination with multi-channel mapping) are getting an unexpected development. There are good reasons to believe that practical health care and medical science have acquired a new effective non-drug method of treatment and prevention. As a result of this approach, the possibility of developing a person’s potential increases due to the study and correction of stressful States and activation of his resource state in conditions of high information density.